Ubuntu Installation Guide

This manual is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License. Please refer to the license in Appendix F, GNU General Public License.

Abstract

This document contains installation instructions for the Ubuntu 16.04 system (codename Xenial Xerus), for the 32-bit PC (i386) architecture. It also contains pointers to more information and information on how to make the most of your new Ubuntu system.


Table of Contents

Installing Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus For i386
1. Welcome to Ubuntu
1.1. What is Ubuntu?
1.1.1. Sponsorship by Canonical
1.2. What is Debian?
1.2.1. Ubuntu and Debian
1.3. What is GNU/Linux?
1.4. Getting Ubuntu
1.5. Getting the Newest Version of This Document
1.6. Organization of This Document
1.7. Your Documentation Help is Welcome
1.8. About Copyrights and Software Licenses
2. System Requirements
2.1. Supported Hardware
2.1.1. Supported Architectures
2.1.2. CPU, Main Boards, and Video Support
2.1.3. Laptops
2.1.4. Multiple Processors
2.1.5. Graphics Hardware Support
2.1.6. Network Connectivity Hardware
2.1.7. Braille Displays
2.1.8. Hardware Speech Synthesis
2.1.9. Peripherals and Other Hardware
2.2. Devices Requiring Firmware
2.3. Purchasing Hardware Specifically for GNU/Linux
2.3.1. Avoid Proprietary or Closed Hardware
2.4. Installation Media
2.4.1. CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM
2.4.2. USB Memory Stick
2.4.3. Network
2.4.4. Hard Disk
2.4.5. Un*x or GNU system
2.4.6. Supported Storage Systems
2.5. Memory and Disk Space Requirements
3. Before Installing Ubuntu
3.1. Overview of the Installation Process
3.2. Back Up Your Existing Data!
3.3. Information You Will Need
3.3.1. Documentation
3.3.2. Finding Sources of Hardware Information
3.3.3. Hardware Compatibility
3.3.4. Network Settings
3.4. Meeting Minimum Hardware Requirements
3.5. Pre-Partitioning for Multi-Boot Systems
3.6. Pre-Installation Hardware and Operating System Setup
3.6.1. Invoking the BIOS Set-Up Menu
3.6.2. Boot Device Selection
3.6.3. Systems with UEFI firmware
3.6.4. Disabling the Windows 8 fast boot feature
3.6.5. Hardware Issues to Watch Out For
4. Obtaining System Installation Media
4.1. Official Ubuntu CD-ROMs
4.2. Downloading Files from Ubuntu Mirrors
4.2.1. Where to Find Installation Images
4.3. Preparing Files for USB Memory Stick Booting
4.3.1. Preparing a USB stick using a hybrid CD or DVD image
4.3.2. Manually copying files to the USB stick
4.3.3. Manually copying files to the USB stick — the flexible way
4.4. Preparing Files for Hard Disk Booting
4.4.1. Hard disk installer booting from Linux using LILO or GRUB
4.5. Preparing Files for TFTP Net Booting
4.5.1. Setting up a DHCP server
4.5.2. Setting up a BOOTP server
4.5.3. Enabling the TFTP Server
4.5.4. Move TFTP Images Into Place
4.6. Automatic Installation
4.6.1. Automatic Installation Using the Ubuntu Installer
4.6.2. Automatic Installation Using Kickstart
5. Booting the Installation System
5.1. Booting the Installer on 32-bit PC
5.1.1. Booting from USB Memory Stick
5.1.2. Booting from a CD-ROM
5.1.3. Booting from Linux using LILO or GRUB
5.1.4. Booting with TFTP
5.1.5. The Boot Screen
5.2. Accessibility
5.2.1. Installer front-end
5.2.2. USB Braille Displays
5.2.3. Serial Braille Displays
5.2.4. Software Speech Synthesis
5.2.5. Hardware Speech Synthesis
5.2.6. Board Devices
5.2.7. High-Contrast Theme
5.2.8. Zoom
5.2.9. Preseeding
5.2.10. Accessibility of the installed system
5.3. Boot Parameters
5.3.1. Boot console
5.3.2. Ubuntu Installer Parameters
5.3.3. Using boot parameters to answer questions
5.3.4. Passing parameters to kernel modules
5.3.5. Blacklisting kernel modules
5.4. Troubleshooting the Installation Process
5.4.1. CD-ROM Reliability
5.4.2. Boot Configuration
5.4.3. Software Speech Synthesis
5.4.4. Common 32-bit PC Installation Problems
5.4.5. Interpreting the Kernel Startup Messages
5.4.6. Reporting Installation Problems
5.4.7. Submitting Installation Reports
6. Using the Ubuntu Installer
6.1. How the Installer Works
6.2. Components Introduction
6.3. Using Individual Components
6.3.1. Setting up Ubuntu Installer and Hardware Configuration
6.3.2. Setting Up Users And Passwords
6.3.3. Partitioning and Mount Point Selection
6.3.4. Installing the Base System
6.3.5. Installing Additional Software
6.3.6. Making Your System Bootable
6.3.7. Finishing the Installation
6.3.8. Troubleshooting
6.3.9. Installation Over the Network
6.4. Loading Missing Firmware
6.4.1. Preparing a medium
6.4.2. Firmware and the Installed System
7. Booting Into Your New Ubuntu System
7.1. The Moment of Truth
7.2. Mounting encrypted volumes
7.2.1. Troubleshooting
7.3. Log In
8. Next Steps and Where to Go From Here
8.1. Shutting down the system
8.2. If You Are New to Unix
8.3. Orienting Yourself to Ubuntu
8.3.1. Ubuntu Packaging System
8.3.2. Additional Software Available for Ubuntu
8.3.3. Application Version Management
8.3.4. Cron Job Management
8.4. Further Reading and Information
8.5. Setting Up Your System To Use E-Mail
8.5.1. Default E-Mail Configuration
8.5.2. Sending E-Mails Outside The System
8.5.3. Configuring the Exim4 Mail Transport Agent
8.6. Compiling a New Kernel
8.6.1. Kernel Image Management
8.7. Recovering a Broken System
A. Installation Howto
A.1. Booting the installer
A.1.1. CDROM
A.1.2. USB memory stick
A.1.3. Booting from network
A.2. Installation
A.3. And finally…
B. Automating the installation using preseeding
B.1. Introduction
B.1.1. Preseeding methods
B.1.2. Limitations
B.1.3. Debconf basics
B.2. Using preseeding
B.2.1. Loading the preconfiguration file
B.2.2. Using boot parameters to preseed questions
B.2.3. Auto mode
B.2.4. Aliases useful with preseeding
B.2.5. Using a DHCP server to specify preconfiguration files
B.3. Creating a preconfiguration file
B.4. Contents of the preconfiguration file (for xenial)
B.4.1. Localization
B.4.2. Network configuration
B.4.3. Network console
B.4.4. Mirror settings
B.4.5. Account setup
B.4.6. Clock and time zone setup
B.4.7. Partitioning
B.4.8. Base system installation
B.4.9. Apt setup
B.4.10. Package selection
B.4.11. Boot loader installation
B.4.12. Finishing up the installation
B.4.13. Preseeding other packages
B.5. Advanced options
B.5.1. Running custom commands during the installation
B.5.2. Using preseeding to change default values
B.5.3. Chainloading preconfiguration files
C. Partitioning for Ubuntu
C.1. Deciding on Ubuntu Partitions and Sizes
C.2. The Directory Tree
C.3. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
C.4. Device Names in Linux
C.5. Ubuntu Partitioning Programs
C.5.1. Partitioning for 32-bit PC
D. Random Bits
D.1. Linux Devices
D.1.1. Setting Up Your Mouse
D.2. Disk Space Needed for Tasks
D.3. Disk Space Needed
D.4. Installing Ubuntu from a Unix/Linux System
D.4.1. Getting Started
D.4.2. Install debootstrap
D.4.3. Run debootstrap
D.4.4. Configure The Base System
D.4.5. Install a Kernel
D.4.6. Set up the Boot Loader
D.4.7. Remote access: Installing SSH and setting up access
D.4.8. Finishing touches
D.4.9. Create a User
D.4.10. Install the Ubuntu Desktop
D.5. Installing Ubuntu over Parallel Line IP (PLIP)
D.5.1. Requirements
D.5.2. Setting up source
D.5.3. Installing target
D.6. Installing Ubuntu using PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)
E. Administrivia
E.1. About This Document
E.2. Contributing to This Document
E.3. Major Contributions
E.4. Trademark Acknowledgement
F. GNU General Public License

List of Tables

3.1. Hardware Information Helpful for an Install
3.2. Recommended Minimum System Requirements