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LTP - the Linux Test Project
The Linux Test Project is "a joint project started by SGI™ and maintained by IBM®, that has a goal to deliver test suites to the open source community that validate the reliability, robustness, and stability of Linux. The LTP testsuite contains a collection of tools for testing the Linux kernel and related features."
The ltp packages have been in the Universe repository since Dapper Drake, so you just need to run sudo aptitude install ltp to get it. This will also install ltp-commands-test, ltp-tools, ltp-kernel-test, ltp-network-test and ltp-misc-test. Strangely, you have to install ltp-disk-test separately.
In a terminal, run sudo ltpmenu, which gives you an ncurses-based interface for the tests...