Once the server is setup, it is time to focus on setting up the workstation.
The LTSP project is all about what happens after the kernel is in memory. There are several ways to get the kernel into memory, including Etherboot, Netboot, PXE and floppy disk.
ROM Images or PXE?
If your network card or PC has PXE built into it, then you can use that to load the Linux kernel. PXE is a boot protocol, similar to Etherboot or Netboot.
This is probably the easiest way to set up LTSP, but you need special hardware.
More information: http://ltsp.mirrors.tds.net/pub/ltsp/docs/ltsp-4.1-en.html#AEN618
Etherboot is a software package for creating ROM images that can download code over an Ethernet network to be executed on an x86 computer. Many network adapters have a socket where a ROM chip can be installed. Etherboot is code that can be put in such a ROM.
You can download the Etherboot package and configure it for the type of bootrom that you need. Then, you can compile the source to produce a bootrom image that can be written to an EPROM, a floppy disk or a CD-Rom.
Etherboot from floppy disk
If you would like to use etherboot to boot from a floppy disk, see UbuntuLTSP/LTSPBootingClientsWithoutPxe
Etherboot with a bootrom
Similar to UbuntuLTSP/LTSPBootingClientsWithoutPxe.
Writing the Etherboot image to an EPROM requires an EPROM programmer. This is a piece of equipment that ranges in price from few hundred dollars to several thousand dollars, depending on the features.
The process of creating a bootrom is entirely dependent on the EPROM programmer. This is beyond the scope of this document.
Thin Client Troubleshooting
LTSP works well just so long as everything works first time. When it doesn't it can be an interesting proposition to debug. If you're stuck on PXE booting or USB client printing, take a look at UbuntuLTSP/TroubleShooting.