Note: The package fonts-liberation contains free variants of the Times, Arial and Courier fonts. Those fonts are recommended instead unless you specifically need one of the other Microsoft fonts.
To install the Microsoft core fonts, you will first need to enable the Multiverse repository. Then install the msttcorefonts package by any of the means listed here. After installing the font package you will need to update the shared font directories with the following command in a terminal shell.
sudo fc-cache -f -v
Note: the msttcorefonts package does not work if you are behind a proxy server.