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Tradução em Inglês - RestrictedFormats
Nota, esta página é baseada na versão Hoary do Ubuntu. Utilizadores da versão Warty podem seguir estes passos, mas algums pacotes podem não funcionar (particularmente os pacotes do repositório hoary-extras).
Pacotes distribuídos em repositórios não oficias não são suportados pelas equipas do Ubuntu e Debian. Por favor não reporte erros causados por pacotes destes repositórios. Obrigado.
Este texto descreve como adicionar suporte ao sistema Ubuntu de (1) formatos multimédia não livres e (2) Java. O texto inclui informação de como instalar pacotes para os seguintes formatos multimédia : Macromedia Flash, MP3, AAC, WMA, DVD, Divx/Xvid, MPEG-4, e Realmedia (Realplayer). Informação de Codecs Windows para formatos propriétarios também esta incluido.
POR FAVOR LEIA AS SECÇÕES 1, 2, e 3 independentemente da informação que está procurando.
Secção 1 descreve porque é que os formatos multimédia não livres não vêm incluidos na instalação do Ubuntu, Secção 2 descreve quais os repositórios que devem ser adicionados ao programa Synaptic para que possa instalar os formatos multimédia, e finalmente a Secção 3 explica como modificar as definições de Som para resolver alguns problemas com plug-ins de terceiros no Ubuntu.
Como referenciado na FAQ do Ubuntu, o suporte para alguns formatos populares não está incluído na distribuição do Ubuntu devido a restrições legais quanto à sua distribuição e uso. Enquanto nós não fazemos nenhum esforço para restringir a escolha do utilizador para os formatos que pretenda usar, nós preferimos suportar software livre e formatos abertos (livres). Esta página tenta ser um apanhado de informação sobre como resolver os problemas com a instalação de formatos propriétarios e ferramentas - incluindo as razões para a não inclusão das mesmas, formatos alternativos e/ou implementações, e como uma ultima instância, informação de como usar os formatos proprietários e suas ferramentas.
Como adicionar repositórios
Algumas das seguintes instalações requerem o uso de repositórios que não vêm activados por defeito na instalção do Ubuntu. Por essa mesma razão pode encontrar instruções para adicionar repositórios aqui. Instruções em como adicionar esses repositórios podem ser encontradas no documento AddingRepositoriesHowto: http://www.ubuntulinux.org/wiki/AddingRepositoriesHowto/
Para adicionar esses repositórios usando o programa Synaptic, Abra o Synaptic e clique em Configurações->Repositórios. Deve agora visualizar uma lista de pacotes em uso no seu sistema. Se vir uma linha a dizer Ubuntu 5.04 "Hoary Hedgehog", selecione e clique no botão de editar. Depois, onde diz "Sections" estará escrito uma lista de repositórios. Finalmente, adicione os nomes dos repositórios a essa lista (universe e/ou multiverse - e também caso ainda não tenha adicionado os seguintes repositórios main e restricted) Depois pressione em OK.
Caso não veja uma linha a dizer Ubuntu 5.04 "Hoary Hedgehog", clique no botão Adicionar. Selecione Ubuntu 5.04 "Hoary Hedgehog" na lista, confirme os repositórios que deseja ter activados (universe e/ou multiverse - main/restricted), e pressione OK. Deve estar agora pronto a receber pacotes dos repositórios Universe e/ou Multiverse - Faça OK e no Menu Principal do Synaptic clique em "Recarregar".
Para poder utilizar alguns formatos multimédia/plug-ins, é necessário activar o repositório Hoary-extras. Para o fazer, no menu do Synaptic clique em Configurações->Repositórios, depois em Adicionar, seguido de Custom. Na caixa que aparecer digite a seguinte linha:
deb http://backports.ubuntuforums.org/backports hoary-extras main universe multiverse restricted
Clique OK e volte até ao menu Principal do Synaptic - Pressione "Recarregar".
Tenha em atenção que ao instalar pacotes a partir deste repositório, um aviso de autênticação pode aparecer. Isto significa que os pacotes não foram assinados, por favor ignore o aviso apenas se lhe aparecer ao instalar deste repositório.
Som e software de terceiros
Ubuntu uses a program called esd to allow multiple applications to access the sound card at one time. However, many third party applications not in Ubuntu main aren't designed to use esd to access the card. On some sound cards, this causes these applications to not produce sound. To work around this problem, esd must be configured to release the sound card when it is not using it. To do this, edit /etc/esound/esd.conf and change the line that begins with spawn_options to begin with default_options. Finally, change the -as 5 to -as 2.
Note: this problem only occurs on the Ubuntu Hoary release and newer. Kubuntu is not affected.
Embora a API Java seja aberta, as únicas implementações do Java para Linux com ampla compatibilidade são as derivadas da implementação da Sun. Todas estas implementações carreagam termos de licença não-Livre.
There is a free player for this (GPLFlash), however it does not support many modern Flash applications. Macromedia has a player that supports up-to-date Flash applications, but it is considered "non-free" and as such is not included in the main Ubuntu archive. However, it can be installed from multiverse (see below for details), or by visiting the official Macromedia Flash Player for Linux page and following their simple instructions.
Install (from MULTIVERSE) the following package:
This will install Flash and the plugins needed to view it in Firefox and Mozilla.
MP3 and Windows Media Audio
MP3 is patent-encumbered, for both encoding and decoding, these patents are being actively enforced.
Ogg Vorbis is a flexible and Free lossy audio codec with a proven track record. This format is now supported by some DVD players and some portable music players (usb keys, mp3 players).
However, you can still play your MP3s in Ubuntu with rhythmbox, amaroK, XMMS and others.
RhythmBox is installed by default on Ubuntu (in the Applications menu, Sound & Video -> Music Player). It's a music player similar to Windows Media Player, with iPod support and a music library system.
To play MP3s with Rhythmbox or amaroK, you must install the gstreamer0.8-mad package. This package is in the universe repository (see section 2 above).
To install XMMS (a media player very similar to Winamp), you must install the xmms package. XMMS will play MP3s without needing the gstreamer0.8-mad package. Note : you must choose the eSound output plugin in the options of XMMS (XMMS freezes if you use ALSA). There is also the beep-media-player package (in the universe repository - see section 2 above), a version of XMMS with a more modern interface.
To encode MP3s, you can use Sound Juicer (installed by default) which uses gstreamer and the LAME mp3 encoder. The following should also work with other programs that use gstreamer:
First, install the gstreamer0.8-lame package (available in the HOARY-EXTRAS repository).
After that, launch the command : gnome-audio-profiles-properties and create a new profile (call it something like "MP3" or "LAME").
Then, edit this profile and set GStreamer Pipeline to audio/x-raw-int,rate=44100,channels=2 ! lame name=enc.
Optionally, you can add bitrate=<some bitrate> to the end of this line if you want a specific bitrate other than the default of 128.
Finally, set File Extension to mp3, and click the Active checkbox and then OK.
Before the first use of Sound Juicer; launch the command : gst-register-0.8. Now, you should be able to rip MP3s.
Alternatively, you can install goobox (in the universe repository) along with gstreamer0.8-lame. Goobox requires no manual configuration to rip MP3s on Ubuntu once gstreamer0.8-lame is installed, and it will allow you to easily choose the audio quality to rip to through its graphical user interface.
For other programs (non GStreamer), you need to install the "lame" package (MULTIVERSE repository). For example, grip (gnome cd ripping program) and kaudiocreator (KDE cd ripping program) work fine with just the "lame" package. Just set your ripper to use LAME and you should be ready to go.
AAC and iTunes Music Store
The default audio format used by Apple's iTunes and iPod is AAC. This is a variant of the MPEG standard, and as such has patent issues. However, you can listen to AAC files in rhythmbox or amaroK by installing gstreamer0.8-faad (from HOARY-EXTRAS). You will need this for listening to any AAC file, including those bought from the iTunes Music Store (see below for more info on using the music store on Linux).
FAAC can be used to encode AACs, although this is somewhat experimental compared to MP3 encoding at this point.. For encoding programs which use gstreamer, there is a gstreamer plugin called gstreamer0.8-faac (install from HOARY-EXTRAS). However, this currently is problematic, and does not produce usable AAC files, though this may change in the future.
For other programs, you may be able to utilize FAAC directly to encode to AACs - just install the "faac" package. You can make iPod-compatible AACs this way, but this requires some additional configuration in your CD ripping utility.
iTunes Music Store
Apple's iTunes Music Store sells music online with a large selection of artists. Songs are in 128K AAC format, and cost varies by country. Apple only has Mac and Windows clients, but it also can be used on Linux. There are two different methods by which this can be done.
First of all, you can use CodeWeavers CrossOver Office (available at http://www.codeweavers.com) to install the Windows version of iTunes on Ubuntu. This will allow you to buy iTunes songs on Linux and listen to them. However, the main caveats of this approach is that 1) it costs money 2) it is not a fully Linux-native solution.
As an alternative to using CrossOver, there is a new, Free program called PyMusique which allows basic usage of the iTunes Music Store on Linux. This works better than using iTunes on CrossOver, but PyMusique has less features than the official iTunes client at this point and may be in violation of the iTunes Music Store terms of service. To use this on Ubuntu, first install gstreamer0.8-faad (from HOARY-EXTRAS) and libmcrypt4 (from UNIVERSE). Then, go to http://fuware.nanocrew.net/pymusique/ or a mirror (google "pymusique 0.4" for mirrors) and download the pymusique, python2.4-mcrypt, python2.4-vlc, and python2.4-mp4ff packages. Finally, install all the packages you downloaded from the above website. You can now launch PyMusique from the Applications-Internet menu, and purchase songs (although you may have to restart your system for this to work).
Non encrypted !DVDs should play, however be aware that mpeg2 is somewhat patent encumbered and is not shipped on the !CDs (though is in 'main')
Full DVD-Video support requires support of the Content Scrambling System (CSS). In the United States, using libdvdcss and other decryption software is legal if the primary purpose is interoperability of operating systems and hardware. 17 U.S.C. Sec 1201(f). However, using it for the purpose of avoiding the copyright laws (e.g., to make copies of copyrighted materials for distribution) is classed as a 'circumvention device' and is such illegal in the United States and some other jurisdictions. 17 U.S.C. Sec. 1201(a). Making backups or porting the content to other devices is likewise legal, but that assumes that you still have a license to the content (e.g., you still have the original recording).
However, as you can read at the DeCSS information page, in most European countries, DVD backup is legal. In fact, you can backup anything that you own in, eg. Norway, Sweden, etc. If you do not require compatibility with a DVD player, consider encoding your videos in Ogg Theora.
If you would like full DVD support, run the following script: /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/examples/install-css.sh . Then, install the DVD playing software of your choice (xine-ui from universe is good).
If DVD playback is jerky or you notice optical data transfer (i.e burning a CD/DVD) is slower than it should be then you need to enable DMA transfer for that drive by editing the file:
You will need to know the device name of your DVD drive (e.g /dev/hdc) and then enable DMA with the 'dma = on' command. Then, either reboot or run the following command:
sudo /sbin/hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdc
(where your DVD drive is hdc)
You should now be able to play DVD's smoothly with the correct software.
!DivX / !XviD, other MPEG-4 variants, and miscellaneous proprietary video formats
These formats are patent-encumbered. If you do not require compatibility with MPEG-4 players, consider Ogg Theora
**Note:** these are unsupported and may be illegal in your jurisdiction, we in no way endorse the use of these packages.
MPlayer is a movie player for Linux (runs on many other Unices, and non-x86 CPUs, see the documentation). It plays most MPEG, VOB, AVI, Ogg/OGM, VIVO, ASF/WMA/WMV, QT/MOV/MP4, FLI, RM, NuppelVideo, YUV4MPEG, FILM, RoQ, PVA files, supported by many native, XAnim, and Win32 DLL codecs. You can watch VideoCD, SVCD, DVD, 3ivx, DivX 3/4/5 and even WMV movies, too (without the avifile library).
Choose between the various packages as follows (all are from UNIVERSE):
Depending on your cpu: 386s and 486s should use mplayer-386; Intel Pentiums and newer should use mplayer-586; AMD Athlons and newer may use mplayer-k6 (find your cpu using "uname -m" in a Terminal).
The following packages may optionally be installed:
- mplayer-fonts mozilla-mplayer mplayer-doc (optional)
The "mixer" setting may need to be changed to avoid errors during playback. Right click on the MPlayer screen, select Preferences and then select the Audio tab. Select OSS (or your mixer if you use a different one) from the types and OK everything (accepting the default mixer location etc).
Not all mpgs are created equal. If you are getting sound but no video with some mpgs, you probably need the ffmpeg libraries.
gstreamer0.8-ffmpeg (from UNIVERSE)
Additionally, other codecs may be required for various formats. Some of these can be found on the Mplayer home page at http://www.mplayerhq.hu and on various apt repositories around the web, but note that many of these may not be legally used or distributed.
RealPlayer on x86
You are required to manually download Realplayer from here.
Once it is downloaded, move it to your home folder (if its not there already), then open up a terminal and type
chmod u+x RealPlayer10GOLD.bin sudo ./RealPlayer10GOLD.bin
You are then prompted for an installation directory. I chose
Answer yes to creating symbolic links, and let it use the default directory.
Realplayer should now be in your Gnome menu, under the Sound&Video section.
To install the firefox plugins, run realplayer from the gnome menu. You will be asked to agree to a licence (this is free as in beer, not free as in speech). The you will be asked if you want to check for updates and configure mozilla helpers, check both and click ok. Now head over to http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/ and you should be able to listen.
If it don't start, go in a terminal and type "sudo killall esd".
Real Player for PPC
To install Realplayer on PPC, download the Experimental build installer from Helix
make the file executable (chmod 770) and execute (./realplayer-xxxxxx.bin)
Answer the questions and Realplayer should work by executing /path-to-Realplayer-directory/realplayer. To make life easier add an alias in your .bashrc (ie alias = '/path-to-Realplayer-directory/./realplayer&') or create a soft link to /usr/local/bin (sudo ln -s /path-to-Realplayer-directory/realplayer /usr/local/bin/).
Real Player issues
1. If realplayer doesn't immediately work, go to the realplayer install directory and remove the swf plugins. For some reason, it works perfectly most of the time after you do this. If you still have problems, it may be the way that your soundcard handles esd. Go on to 2. (Keith Bassett)
2. If you have trouble hearing any sound in realplayer, change the auto_spawn item in /etc/esound/esd.conf from its default setting of 0 to 1.