Introduction

This documentation is intended to give someone a jump start on learning the art of firewall configuration via standard shorewall tools. Shorewall is a perl based wrapper for IPTables. IPTables and Shorewall can probably do the same things, but shorewall makes it easier.

This guide will make the following assumptions:

  • You are comfortable with some basics on the command line and know how to edit text files
  • You are familiar with basic network concepts involving IP Addresses and routers
  • You are responsible for your own actions, including following this documentation

Goals

  • To configure an enterprise level firewall using Linux
  • To share an Internet connection via custom router

Advantages

  • Massive monitoring options for all Internet traffic by using iptraf, tcpdump, and other similar tools
  • Custom port blocking for all members of the LAN
  • Flexibility for future Internet filtering via centralized configuration
  • Increased options and ease of configuration for VPN connections, including site to site links

Requirements

  • Linux with kernel 2.4 or 2.6 (Ubuntu, Debian, OpenWRT, and loads more)
  • Two network cards installed and functional
  • Shorewall 3.4.4 or similar installed: sudo apt-get install shorewall

  • Physical access to your soon-to-be router is nearly a requirement. Try these directions remotely at your own risk.

Network Configuration

To start, get a Linux box with two network cards that can be used in a test environment. Run ip addr and you should get something like this:

1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN 
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 brd 127.255.255.255 scope host lo
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:11:22:d0:13:53 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 10.10.10.2/24 scope global eth0
    inet6 fe80::240:f4ff:fed0:1e53/64 scope link
3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:33:44:92:75:66 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.1.1/24 scope global eth0
    inet6 fe80::250:bfff:fe92:7566/64 scope link

Network Interfaces - Notes on trust levels

Note: A standard convention for network interface trust levels is shown below

  • eth0 -- external network interface
    • - internet -- 0.001% trusted
    eth1 -- internal network interface
    • - lan -- 70% trusted

If additional interfaces are added or listed, it is best to keep the same order. The least trusted interface should be first, most trusted last. This is only a convention, not required, but highly recommended.

If you see any interface that starts with tun, ppp, or ham, it probably is a vpn connection.

Functionality Requirement: Network cards

If you do not have at least eth0 and eth1, try your hardware again or check for module issues. If there are more than two eth interfaces that is fine, they can be ignored for now.

If you have eth0 and eth1, then set their IP address information as needed. This can be done via GUI Network Manager, or on command line by editing your /etc/network/interfaces file as listed below. If you aren't sure whether to use DHCP or set static, start with DHCP and see if the router box can get to the Internet.

### IP Address settings if your external interface needs DHCP ###
# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# External network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp

# Internal network interface
auto eth1
iface eth1 inet static
       address 192.168.1.1
       netmask 255.255.255.0
       broadcast 192.168.1.255
#### DO NOT PUT A GATEWAY LINE IN HERE, the one given via DHCP on the external interface is enough

OR

### IP Address settings if your external interface needs to be static ###
# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# External network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
       address 10.10.10.2
       netmask 255.255.255.0
       broadcast 10.2.2.255
       gateway 10.10.10.1

# Internal network interface
auto eth1
iface eth1 inet static
       address 192.168.1.1
       netmask 255.255.255.0
       broadcast 192.168.1.255
#### DO NOT PUT A SECOND GATEWAY LINE IN HERE, the one above is enough

Once your settings are the way you want, run this command on one line or from the physical console:

 ifdown -a;ifup -a

Verify that you can ping something on your outside network, the Internet, and your inside network.

Shorewall Beginnings

  • If you haven't done so already, install shorewall: sudo apt-get install shorewall

  • Edit /etc/shorewall/shorewall.conf and verify 'IP_FORWARDING=On'
  • Edit /etc/default/shorewall and set 'startup=1'

Shorewall Configuration Files

Within /etc/shorewall, these files are of importance for a basic router:

 interfaces  masq  modules  policy  rules  shorewall.conf  zones

All other files can be ignored or deleted. The samples are duplicated in /usr/share/doc/shorewall/default-config/. Each of these files can be used for advanced concepts later, and are simply not required now.

Also note that each config file has extra documentation right in the config file.

/etc/shorewall/interfaces


This config file should be strait forward. We are simply naming each network interface for use later.

From now on, we refer to eth0 as "net" or Internet. Eth1 is now referred to as "lan". Names can be nearly anything you want, granted that it is alphanumeric, and 5 characters or less.

Every config file from here on refers to these names.

### Comments, comments, and more comments.
#
#ZONE    INTERFACE      BROADCAST       OPTIONS
#
net      eth0           detect          tcpflags,nosmurfs
lan      eth1           detect
#LAST LINE -- ADD YOUR ENTRIES BEFORE THIS ONE -- DO NOT REMOVE

/etc/shorewall/zones


The basic function of zones is to set ipv4 or ipv6. Also note we now have a new concept referred to as 'fw'.

The fw entry simply means "me". It always refers to the Linux box shorewall is running on, and is completely independent of interfaces, ip addresses, or other network settings. Notice that fw's type is 'firewall', not ipv4.

### Comments, comments, and more comments.
#ZONE   TYPE    OPTIONS                 IN                      OUT
#                                       OPTIONS                 OPTIONS
fw      firewall
net     ipv4
lan     ipv4
#LAST LINE - ADD YOUR ENTRIES ABOVE THIS ONE - DO NOT REMOVE

/etc/shorewall/policy


The policy sets the overall layout for who is allowed to go where. It makes broad sweeps and big changes. Start here for designing security.

Each line is processed from top to bottom for every packet that goes to or through the router. If a packet matches the source and the destination, then the policy type determines the fate of the packet.

Each line can be read as "if a packet is sent from the ____ to the ____ then ______ it."

  • Ex: If a packet is sent from the 'lan' to the 'net' then 'ACCEPT' it.

Ex:

  • A device connected to the LAN tries to ping our firewall.
    • Rule #1 does not match, the destination is not the Internet.
    • Rule #2 does match, source and destination are the same as our packet. The packet is sent on to its destination (which just happens to be the firewall itself).
  • A device somewhere on the 'net' tries to ping our firewall.
    • Rules #1-4 do nothing, the source is not the Internet.
    • Rule #5 does match. It is coming from the net. The destination does not matter. The packet is dropped, the person pinging us gets no response, as if our router is not turned on.
  • A device connected to the LAN tries to ping google.com
    • Rule #1 matches, the firewall accepts it, and then passes it on. Note: The "passing on" function usually needs to be configured in another file.

    • The ping should then make it out to google.com via our ISP and other routers, then come back to us.
    • When the packet comes back, it technically matches 'net to all DROP', but it is a response to a conversation we started. It is considered an ESTABLISHED connection, and therefore is automatically sent through to the LAN regardless of any policy in this example.

The last line of all all REJECT info simply means "if we forgot a policy variation, reject the packet". It should always be the last rule, nothing after it will be processed. The REJECT option sends a message back to the source explicitly saying "I'm not available". The REJECT option is not a good idea if you are trying to make your router invisible.

### Comments, comments, and more comments.
#SOURCE         DEST            POLICY          LOG LEVEL       LIMIT:BURST
#
lan             net             ACCEPT
lan             fw              ACCEPT

fw              net             ACCEPT
fw              lan             ACCEPT

net             all             DROP

# THE FOLLOWING POLICY MUST BE LAST
all             all             REJECT          info
#LAST LINE -- ADD YOUR ENTRIES ABOVE THIS LINE -- DO NOT REMOVE

/etc/shorewall/rules


The rules file is for making exceptions to the policy. It is best used for making small changes to the firewall, not large changes. This file is not required for a normal functioning firewall unless you want to let people in from the Internet.

Each line can be read as

"______ a packet if it is sent from the ____ to the ____ 
using the protocol of ____ on port number ____"

Each entry can be restrictive. For example, the rule below that has "net:14.15.16.112/27" as the source will only match if that IP address range tries to ping us.

Each entry can have multiple comma delimited fields, EX: port 21,22,53,80,443 or net:1.2.3.4,55.66.77.88

#ACTION  SOURCE                 DEST    PROTO   DEST    SOURCE  ORIGINAL     RATE            USER/
#                                               PORT    PORT(S) DEST         LIMIT           GROUP
ACCEPT  net                     fw      tcp     80
ACCEPT  net:77.88.99.110        fw      udp     1194
ACCEPT  net:14.15.16.112/27     fw      icmp    8

#LAST LINE -- ADD YOUR ENTRIES BEFORE THIS ONE -- DO NOT REMOVE

/etc/shorewall/masq


The masq file is required if you want your shorewall box to be a router.

This file can be read as

"if someone is trying to get to a network that ____ has access to,
and that someone is coming in from ____ then pass it through. When
passing the packet on, rewrite it so it looks like it is coming from
me directly."

Note: Masq(erading) is almost always required for routing. This is based on the assumption that your internal network and your external network have completely different IP address ranges. When your firewall is fully configured for routing, it will rewrite outgoing packets to make the traffic appear to come from itself, rather then the original device on the protected lan. This is normal.

EX: Device with IP address 192.168.1.101 is on the internal lan, and wants to ping 10.10.10.1 on your external lan. If your router passed the whole packet on exactly as is, 10.10.10.1 would try to respond to 192.168.1.101. It does not know which network that is, and will fail. If your router rewrites the sender as being itself (10.10.10.2) then 10.10.10.1 will know how to respond. The route then rewrites the destination on the response so it gets forwarded on to 192.168.1.101.

#INTERFACE              SUBNET          ADDRESS         PROTO   PORT(S) IPSEC
eth0 eth1

#LAST LINE -- ADD YOUR ENTRIES ABOVE THIS LINE -- DO NOT REMOVE

Shorewall - Testing settings

Once all of the files listed above have been updated as needed, issue the following command:

sudo shorewall check

That will spew multiple screens worth of info at you. The important info is at the bottom. If you have a line that says Shorewall configuration verified or other similar joy, you are in business. If the output complains about a file, you probably have a typo. Double check your spelling and capitalization.

If the check went through successfully, lets continue. Otherwise go back and figure out what is wrong.

Shorewall - Applying settings

To take your newly checked settings and apply them, issue the following command:

sudo shorewall restart

You should now be firewalled, and allowing all traffic through this router from the internal LAN. Make sure that the computers on the LAN use your new router as their default gateway. DNS servers also need to be pingable. DNSMasq documentation is very useful to read up on for getting a dhcp server functional within your new LAN.

Command Reference

Additional Info

Todo

  • More 'human interpretation' examples
  • DNSMasq - DHCP & DNS server for LAN

  • Example conf files for different environments
  • Adding a VPN connection
  • Oops - undo shorewall via 'shorewall stop' and 'shorewall clear'
  • shorewall ipcalc


CategorySecurity CategoryNetworking

ShorewallBasics (last edited 2012-01-03 01:06:46 by tom6)