This documentation is intended to give someone a jump start on learning the art of firewall configuration via standard shorewall tools. Shorewall is a perl based wrapper for IPTables. IPTables and Shorewall can probably do the same things, but shorewall makes it easier.
This guide will make the following assumptions:
- You are comfortable with some basics on the command line and know how to edit text files
- You are familiar with basic network concepts involving IP Addresses and routers
- You are responsible for your own actions, including following this documentation
- To configure an enterprise level firewall using Linux
- To share an Internet connection via custom router
- Massive monitoring options for all Internet traffic by using iptraf, tcpdump, and other similar tools
- Custom port blocking for all members of the LAN
- Flexibility for future Internet filtering via centralized configuration
- Increased options and ease of configuration for VPN connections, including site to site links
- Linux with kernel 2.4 or 2.6 (Ubuntu, Debian, OpenWRT, and loads more)
- Two network cards installed and functional
Shorewall 3.4.4 or similar installed: sudo apt-get install shorewall
- Physical access to your soon-to-be router is nearly a requirement. Try these directions remotely at your own risk.
To start, get a Linux box with two network cards that can be used in a test environment. Run ip addr and you should get something like this:
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00 inet 127.0.0.1/8 brd 127.255.255.255 scope host lo inet6 ::1/128 scope host valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever 2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000 link/ether 00:11:22:d0:13:53 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 10.10.10.2/24 scope global eth0 inet6 fe80::240:f4ff:fed0:1e53/64 scope link 3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000 link/ether 00:33:44:92:75:66 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 192.168.1.1/24 scope global eth0 inet6 fe80::250:bfff:fe92:7566/64 scope link
Network Interfaces - Notes on trust levels
Note: A standard convention for network interface trust levels is shown below
- eth0 -- external network interface
- - internet -- 0.001% trusted
- - lan -- 70% trusted
If additional interfaces are added or listed, it is best to keep the same order. The least trusted interface should be first, most trusted last. This is only a convention, not required, but highly recommended.
If you see any interface that starts with tun, ppp, or ham, it probably is a vpn connection.
Functionality Requirement: Network cards
If you do not have at least eth0 and eth1, try your hardware again or check for module issues. If there are more than two eth interfaces that is fine, they can be ignored for now.
If you have eth0 and eth1, then set their IP address information as needed. This can be done via GUI Network Manager, or on command line by editing your /etc/network/interfaces file as listed below. If you aren't sure whether to use DHCP or set static, start with DHCP and see if the router box can get to the Internet.
### IP Address settings if your external interface needs DHCP ### # The loopback network interface auto lo iface lo inet loopback # External network interface auto eth0 iface eth0 inet dhcp # Internal network interface auto eth1 iface eth1 inet static address 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.1.255 #### DO NOT PUT A GATEWAY LINE IN HERE, the one given via DHCP on the external interface is enough
### IP Address settings if your external interface needs to be static ### # The loopback network interface auto lo iface lo inet loopback # External network interface auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 10.10.10.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 10.2.2.255 gateway 10.10.10.1 # Internal network interface auto eth1 iface eth1 inet static address 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.1.255 #### DO NOT PUT A SECOND GATEWAY LINE IN HERE, the one above is enough
Once your settings are the way you want, run this command on one line or from the physical console:
ifdown -a;ifup -a
Verify that you can ping something on your outside network, the Internet, and your inside network.
If you haven't done so already, install shorewall: sudo apt-get install shorewall
- Edit /etc/shorewall/shorewall.conf and verify 'IP_FORWARDING=On'
- Edit /etc/default/shorewall and set 'startup=1'
Shorewall Configuration Files
Within /etc/shorewall, these files are of importance for a basic router:
interfaces masq modules policy rules shorewall.conf zones
All other files can be ignored or deleted. The samples are duplicated in /usr/share/doc/shorewall/default-config/. Each of these files can be used for advanced concepts later, and are simply not required now.
Also note that each config file has extra documentation right in the config file.
This config file should be strait forward. We are simply naming each network interface for use later.
From now on, we refer to eth0 as "net" or Internet. Eth1 is now referred to as "lan". Names can be nearly anything you want, granted that it is alphanumeric, and 5 characters or less.
Every config file from here on refers to these names.
### Comments, comments, and more comments. # #ZONE INTERFACE BROADCAST OPTIONS # net eth0 detect tcpflags,nosmurfs lan eth1 detect #LAST LINE -- ADD YOUR ENTRIES BEFORE THIS ONE -- DO NOT REMOVE
The basic function of zones is to set ipv4 or ipv6. Also note we now have a new concept referred to as 'fw'.
The fw entry simply means "me". It always refers to the Linux box shorewall is running on, and is completely independent of interfaces, ip addresses, or other network settings. Notice that fw's type is 'firewall', not ipv4.
### Comments, comments, and more comments. #ZONE TYPE OPTIONS IN OUT # OPTIONS OPTIONS fw firewall net ipv4 lan ipv4 #LAST LINE - ADD YOUR ENTRIES ABOVE THIS ONE - DO NOT REMOVE
The policy sets the overall layout for who is allowed to go where. It makes broad sweeps and big changes. Start here for designing security.
Each line is processed from top to bottom for every packet that goes to or through the router. If a packet matches the source and the destination, then the policy type determines the fate of the packet.
Each line can be read as "if a packet is sent from the ____ to the ____ then ______ it." Ex: If a packet is sent from the 'lan' to the 'net' then 'ACCEPT' it.
Ex: If a packet is sent from the 'lan' to the 'net' then 'ACCEPT' it.
- A device connected to the LAN tries to ping our firewall.
- Rule #1 does not match, the destination is not the Internet.
- Rule #2 does match, source and destination are the same as our packet. The packet is sent on to its destination (which just happens to be the firewall itself).
- A device somewhere on the 'net' tries to ping our firewall.
- Rules #1-4 do nothing, the source is not the Internet.
- Rule #5 does match. It is coming from the net. The destination does not matter. The packet is dropped, the person pinging us gets no response, as if our router is not turned on.
- A device connected to the LAN tries to ping google.com
Rule #1 matches, the firewall accepts it, and then passes it on. Note: The "passing on" function usually needs to be configured in another file.
- The ping should then make it out to google.com via our ISP and other routers, then come back to us.
- When the packet comes back, it technically matches 'net to all DROP', but it is a response to a conversation we started. It is considered an ESTABLISHED connection, and therefore is automatically sent through to the LAN regardless of any policy in this example.
The last line of all all REJECT info simply means "if we forgot a policy variation, reject the packet". It should always be the last rule, nothing after it will be processed. The REJECT option sends a message back to the source explicitly saying "I'm not available". The REJECT option is not a good idea if you are trying to make your router invisible.
### Comments, comments, and more comments. #SOURCE DEST POLICY LOG LEVEL LIMIT:BURST # lan net ACCEPT lan fw ACCEPT fw net ACCEPT fw lan ACCEPT net all DROP # THE FOLLOWING POLICY MUST BE LAST all all REJECT info #LAST LINE -- ADD YOUR ENTRIES ABOVE THIS LINE -- DO NOT REMOVE
The rules file is for making exceptions to the policy. It is best used for making small changes to the firewall, not large changes. This file is not required for a normal functioning firewall unless you want to let people in from the Internet.
Each line can be read as
"______ a packet if it is sent from the ____ to the ____
using the protocol of ____ on port number ____"
Each entry can be restrictive. For example, the rule below that has "net:220.127.116.11/27" as the source will only match if that IP address range tries to ping us.
Each entry can have multiple comma delimited fields, EX: port 21,22,53,80,443 or net:18.104.22.168,22.214.171.124
#ACTION SOURCE DEST PROTO DEST SOURCE ORIGINAL RATE USER/ # PORT PORT(S) DEST LIMIT GROUP ACCEPT net fw tcp 80 ACCEPT net:126.96.36.199 fw udp 1194 ACCEPT net:188.8.131.52/27 fw icmp 8 #LAST LINE -- ADD YOUR ENTRIES BEFORE THIS ONE -- DO NOT REMOVE
The masq file is required if you want your shorewall box to be a router.
This file can be read as
"if someone is trying to get to a network that ____ has access to,
and that someone is coming in from ____ then pass it through. When
passing the packet on, rewrite it so it looks like it is coming from
Note: Masq(erading) is almost always required for routing. This is based on the assumption that your internal network and your external network have completely different IP address ranges. When your firewall is fully configured for routing, it will rewrite outgoing packets to make the traffic appear to come from itself, rather then the original device on the protected lan. This is normal.
EX: Device with IP address 192.168.1.101 is on the internal lan, and wants to ping 10.10.10.1 on your external lan. If your router passed the whole packet on exactly as is, 10.10.10.1 would try to respond to 192.168.1.101. It does not know which network that is, and will fail. If your router rewrites the sender as being itself (10.10.10.2) then 10.10.10.1 will know how to respond. The route then rewrites the destination on the response so it gets forwarded on to 192.168.1.101.
#INTERFACE SUBNET ADDRESS PROTO PORT(S) IPSEC eth0 eth1 #LAST LINE -- ADD YOUR ENTRIES ABOVE THIS LINE -- DO NOT REMOVE
Shorewall - Testing settings
Once all of the files listed above have been updated as needed, issue the following command:
sudo shorewall check
That will spew multiple screens worth of info at you. The important info is at the bottom. If you have a line that says Shorewall configuration verified or other similar joy, you are in business. If the output complains about a file, you probably have a typo. Double check your spelling and capitalization.
If the check went through successfully, lets continue. Otherwise go back and figure out what is wrong.
Shorewall - Applying settings
To take your newly checked settings and apply them, issue the following command:
sudo shorewall restart
You should now be firewalled, and allowing all traffic through this router from the internal LAN. Make sure that the computers on the LAN use your new router as their default gateway. DNS servers also need to be pingable. DNSMasq documentation is very useful to read up on for getting a dhcp server functional within your new LAN.
- More 'human interpretation' examples
DNSMasq - DHCP & DNS server for LAN
- Example conf files for different environments
- Adding a VPN connection
- Oops - undo shorewall via 'shorewall stop' and 'shorewall clear'
- shorewall ipcalc