Verifying Ubuntu ISO images assumes basic knowledge of the command-line, checking SHA256 checksums, checking MD5 checksums and using GnuPG. MD5 is not the preferred algorithm to verify integrity, and is provided for convenience or compatibility.
The steps are
Download SHA256SUMS and SHA256SUMS.gpg, or MD5SUMS and MD5SUMS.gpg
- Get the key used for the signature
- Verify the signature
Check the ISO with sha256sum or md5sum
After verifying the ISO file, you can [BurningIsoHowto burn it to a CD].
Download sums and signature
Just download the two files from any of the mirrors. Store them in the same directory. For Trusty, the CD image MD5s can be found at http://releases.ubuntu.com/14.04/ and the Trusty DVDs can be found at http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/releases/14.04/release/. If you're using another version of Ubuntu, change "14.04" in those URLs to your version number (e.g. 12.04 for Precise).
Get the key
Find out what key was used to issue the signature
By running GnuPG to verify the signature we can find out what key is needed:
$ gpg --verify SHA256SUMS.gpg SHA256SUMS or $ gpg --verify MD5SUMS.gpg MD5SUMS gpg: Signature made 2014-07-25T01:53:21 CEST using DSA key ID FBB75451 gpg: Can't check signature: No public key
The key ID is 0xFBB75451.
Obtain the public key from the Ubuntu key server
To add the wanted key automatically to your keyring from the Ubuntu keyserver and calculate its trust:
$ gpg --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 0xFBB75451 gpg: requesting key FBB75451 from hkp server keyserver.ubuntu.com gpg: key FBB75451: public key "Ubuntu CD Image Automatic Signing Key <email@example.com>" imported gpg: 3 marginal(s) needed, 1 complete(s) needed, PGP trust model gpg: depth: 0 valid: 2 signed: 1 trust: 0-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 2u gpg: depth: 1 valid: 1 signed: 0 trust: 1-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 0u gpg: Total number processed: 1 gpg: imported: 1 $
Now when you verify the sums file you'll get a result resembling this:
$ gpg --verify SHA256SUMS.gpg SHA256SUMS gpg: Signature made 2014-07-25T01:53:21 CEST using DSA key ID FBB75451 gpg: Good signature from "Ubuntu CD Image Automatic Signing Key <firstname.lastname@example.org>" gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! gpg: There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner. Primary key fingerprint: C598 6B4F 1257 FFA8 6632 CBA7 4618 1433 FBB7 5451
$ gpg --verify MD5SUMS.gpg MD5SUMS gpg: Signature made 2014-07-25T01:53:21 CEST using DSA key ID FBB75451 gpg: Good signature from "Ubuntu CD Image Automatic Signing Key <email@example.com>" gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! gpg: There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner. Primary key fingerprint: C598 6B4F 1257 FFA8 6632 CBA7 4618 1433 FBB7 5451
In this example a "Good signature" validates the integrity of the given file. The warning message indicates your current GnuPG trust database does not have trust information for that signing key, unless you have actually verified and signed one of the public keys belonging to signers of the Ubuntu CD Image signing key. For more information about the OpenPGP Web of Trust see:
Check the ISO
On hard disk
The file SHA256SUMS contains MD5 hashes of the ISO images. Run sha256sum on the ISO and compare the result with the relevant line in MD5SUMS. See this link for more information on SHA256SUMS.
The file MD5SUMS contains MD5 hashes of the ISO images. Run md5sum on the ISO and compare the result with the relevant line in MD5SUMS. See this link for more information on MD5SUMS.
$ sha256sum ubuntu-14.04-server-amd64.iso 946a6077af6f5f95a51f82fdc44051c7aa19f9cfc5f737954845a6050543d7c2 *ubuntu-14.04.1-server-amd64.iso
$ md5sum ubuntu-14.04-server-amd64.iso ca2531b8cd79ea5b778ede3a524779b9 *ubuntu-14.04.1-server-amd64.iso
Or doing it automatically with a one line script.
$ sha256sum -c <(grep ubuntu-14.04.1-server-amd64.iso SHA256SUMS) ubuntu-14.04.1-server-amd64.iso: OK
$ md5sum -c <(grep ubuntu-14.04.1-server-amd64.iso MD5SUMS) ubuntu-14.04.1-server-amd64.iso: OK
Check again after burning since growisofs adds extra blank bytes increasing file size from 3048179712 (0xB5AF8800) to 3048210432 (0xB5B00000) bytes
$ md5sum ubuntu-5.10-dvd-i386.iso e41c0631f6f2c138a417b59bcb880fce $ wc -c ubuntu-5.10-dvd-i386.iso 3048179712 $ dd if=/dev/dvdwriter | head -c 3048179712 | md5sum e41c0631f6f2c138a417b59bcb880fce $
You can also check a disc while you are booting from it. This is useful for testing that your target hardware can properly read all of the disc.
Divide the image size in bytes by 512 to get the size in blocks. Boot from the disc, and when the installer has reached the disk partitioning stage, switch to a shell (alt-2) and run the following command, adding the size of the ISO image in blocks as the argument "count".
$ dd if=/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 count=5953476 | md5sum e41c0631f6f2c138a417b59bcb880fce
Spanish (Español): ComoVerificarIso