Note: This guide is written for Amarok 1.X only. Instructions for Amarok v2.x are available here.
Click Applications -> Sound and Video -> Amarok
When you first open up Amarok:
Click Settings -> Configure Amarok.
Choose Media Devices.
Hit Add Device.
Select Apple iPod Media Device for the plugin type.
Point it at your mount point, the default being /media/ipod unless you chose another one when setting up ipod-convenience.
Back in the main app, click the blue cog icon called Configure Device just above the iPhone or iPod Touch. For Pre-Connect Command, add iphone-mount (or ipod-touch-mount), for the Post-Disconnect Command, add iphone-umount (or ipod-touch-umount)
In Devices, click Connect. After entering your password, your iPhone or iPod touch should now appear in Amarok.
Once connected, click on the double arrows on the right hand side of the Connect, Disconnect, and Transfer buttons. A list of options opens up, one of which is iPod. Choose iPod -> Set iPod Model -> Mobile Phones -> iPhone (or your specific iPod Touch model).
iPod Touch 1st Generation works best as Mobile Phones -> iPhone, including cover transfer.