The program sha256sum is designed to verify data integrity using the SHA-256 (SHA-2 family with a digest length of 256 bits). SHA-256 hashes used properly can confirm both file integrity and authenticity. SHA-256 serves a similar purpose to a prior algorithm recommended by Ubuntu, MD5, but is less vulnerable to attack.
Comparing hashes makes it possible to detect changes in files that would cause errors. The possibility of changes (errors) is proportional to the size of the file; the possibility of errors increase as the file becomes larger. It is a very good idea to run an SHA-256 hash comparison check when you have a file like an operating system install CD that has to be 100% correct.
In terms of security, cryptographic hashes such as SHA-256 allow for authentication of data obtained from insecure mirrors. The SHA-256 hash must be signed or come from a secure source (such as a HTTPS page or a GPG-signed file) of an organization you trust. See the SHA-256 checksum file for the release you're using under http://releases.ubuntu.com, such as http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/daily-live/current/SHA256SUMS . You should verify this file using the PGP signature, SHA256SUMS.gpg (such as http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/daily-live/current/SHA256SUMS.gpg ) as described in VerifyIsoHowto.
sha256sum on Linux
Most Linux distributions come with the sha256sum utility (on Ubuntu it is part of the coreutils package). We are going to use the Ubuntu 9.10 LiveDVD for the following example:
Check the iso file
Ubuntu distributes the SHA-256 checksum hashes in a file called SHA256SUMS in the same directory listing as the download page for your release http://releases.ubuntu.com.
First open a terminal and go to the correct directory to check a downloaded iso file:
Then run the following command from within the download directory.
sha256sum should then print out a single line after calculating the hash:
Compare the hash (the alphanumeric string on left) that your machine calculated with the corresponding hash in the SHA256SUMS file.
When both hashes match exactly then the downloaded file is almost certainly intact. If the hashes do not match, then there was a problem with either the download or a problem with the server. You should download the file again from either the same mirror, or from a different mirror if you suspect a server error. If you continuously receive an erroneous file from a server, please be kind and notify the web-master of that mirror so they can investigate the issue.
First download the SHA256SUMS and SHA256SUMS.gpg files to the same directory as the iso. Then run the following commands in a terminal.
cd download_directory sha256sum -c SHA256SUMS 2>&1 | grep OK
The sha256sum line should output a line such as:
If the OK for your file appears, that indicates the hash matches.
Once you have verified the sha256 hash, go ahead and burn the CD. You may want to refer to the BurningIsoHowto page.
Check the CD
So far so good, you have downloaded an iso and verified its integrity. When you boot from the CD you will be given the option to test its integrity. Great, but if the CD is corrupt then you have already wasted time rebooting. You can check the integrity of the CD without rebooting as follows.
Check the calculated hash against UbuntuHashes as shown for the iso file above. Depending on your system, you may need to change cdrom to cdrom0 (or even cdrom1 if you have two CD drives).
Congratulations, you now have a verified Ubuntu CD. Go ahead and use it (or play frisbee with it if you want).
digest(1) on Solaris
Use the Solaris digest(1) command, specifying the sha256 algorithm with the -a flag. For instance:
$ digest -a sha256 ubuntu-9.10-dvd-i386.iso c01b39c7a35ccc3b081a3e83d2c71fa9a767ebfeb45c69f08e17dfe3ef375a7b
SHA256SUM of burnt media
Depending on how you burn your ISOs you can check the burnt media directly. Start by checking that the ISO file is correct:
$ grep ubuntu-9.10-dvd-i386.iso SHA256SUMS | tee /proc/self/fd/2 | sha256sum --check - c01b39c7a35ccc3b081a3e83d2c71fa9a767ebfeb45c69f08e17dfe3ef375a7b *ubuntu-9.10-dvd-i386.iso ubuntu-9.10-dvd-i386.iso: OK
Now burn it from Nautilus (right-click, "Write to Disc ..."). To check the media directly:
$ sha256sum /dev/cdrom c01b39c7a35ccc3b081a3e83d2c71fa9a767ebfeb45c69f08e17dfe3ef375a7b /dev/cdrom
where "/dev/cdrom" is typically a soft-link to your CD/DVD reader/burner. Note that the checksum matches.
MD5SUM on Mac OS X
This should be updated by someone with access to a Mac.
There are three methods of using md5sumsum on an OS X machine.
Method 1 - The easiest (if MD5 is available) is using the Disk Utility program (Applications > Utilities, or by choosing "Utilities" from the Finder's "Go" menu). Open Disk Utility and wait for it to gather information about your disks. Go to the directory where you downloaded the Ubuntu disk image, and drag it to Disk Utility's dock icon (displays on the left-hand side of Disk Utility, underneath your physical drives). Select the iso file. Go to the "Images" menu and select Checksum > MD5. Be sure to choose "MD5" and NOT "MD5 image checksum" or "CRC-32 image checksum", as they are not the same and will give you different results.
Method 2 - If MD5 is not available in the Images > Checksum menu, open a terminal window (Applications > Utilities > Terminal.app). Type "md5", type a space, drag the iso file into the terminal window (appends command with iso file path), and press Enter. The command line returns the hash number.
Method 3 - You can use the Terminal.app and follow the instructions for SHA256SUM on Linux, except use the command "openssl md5" instead of "sha256sum".
Each method returns a hash number. Compare the hash number with the corresponding hash on the UbuntuHashes page. When both hashes match exactly, then the downloaded file is almost certainly intact.
If the hashes do not match, then there was a problem with either the download or a problem with the server. You should download the file again from either the same mirror, or from a different mirror if you suspect a server error. If you continuously receive an erroneous file from a server, please notify the web-master of that mirror so they can investigate the issue.