DeveloperResources - Building packages and other material for developers.
Compilers - Guides on setting up Compilers.
Nano - The easy to use text editor
VimHowto - The powerful and popular editor for Linux.
EmacsHowto - The powerful editor for programmers in Unix environment.
gedit - The default GUI text editor with built-in syntax highlighting.
SciTE - Lightweight GTK-based programming editor with syntax highlighting.
BeginningWebDevelopment - New to programming on the web? Learn about HTML, the basics of databases and scripting languages like PHP.
ApacheMySQLPHP - Instructions for setting up a LAMP (Linux Apache MySQL PHP) environment.
EclipseIDE - An Integrated Development Environment (IDE) capable of supporting multiple programming languages via the use of plugins.
Geany - A small and lightweight integrated development environment.
MATLAB - The Language Of Technical Computing.
Mono - Instructions for beginning Mono development.
Mozart - The programming environment for the Oz language based on GNU/Emacs.
Netbeans - Comprehensive Java IDE.
PythonCard - GUI construction framework for building cross-platform desktop applications using Python.
Vala - Introduction to using the Vala language on Ubuntu.
OpenKomodo - Crude Installation Instructions.
wxBasic - ansi-basic interpreter using wxWidgets libraries
sdlBasic - ansi-basic interpreter using SDL libraries, based on wxBasic interpreter core
PuppyBasic - ansi-basic interpreter without using libraries (only for terminal), based on wxBasic interpreter core
poedit - An easy to use catalog (.po) editor.
Html (=Hyper Text Mark-up Language) and the next step, CSS (=Cascading Style Sheets (to make html easier to implement)) are not really programming languages. They are Document Markup languages to arrange the layout and style of pages that are designed to be displayed in a web-browser. Html/css pages can be stored on a local machine alongside your letters and office documents where they remain inaccessible to the outside world. Usually they are "hosted" on a web-facing server so they can be found be almost anyone around the world through web-surfing but they can be restricted to a LAN or even to just 1 user on 1 machine.
Bluefish - HTML editor
KompoZer - WYSIWYG HTML editor
Screem - HTML editor
CSSed - CSS style sheet editor
Word-processors provide a wysiwyg (=What you see is what you get) format by putting in tons of strange coding characters. Try looking at a ".doc" by opening it in a text-editor.
Html and css are text-based and use human-readable coding to do much the same job making it easier to be more precise about the style and layout of the document. Normal text-editors can edit html and css. Some make it easier by colour-coding the text so that you can see the differences between the coding and the contents of the page. Gedit's bottom status-bar has a menu that defaults to "Plain Text" but when you click on it offers you a variety of programming languages and document mark-up languages. SciTe and many OpenSource text-editors do the same. The listed html/css editors (above) take it a step further to make it even easier to edit html and css but even something like Notepad can be used.
There are many courses at various prices and levels to help people learn html and css but here are some free ones
The w3schools homepage offers courses in the basics of many other website development tools.
To make or manage a sophisticated (or even fairly basic) website it is worth exploring content management systems such as Drupal or Joomla. These are installed on the web-hosting server and you login on a normal machine to manage the website. Joomla and Drupal are both OpenSource and most web servers will already have one (or both) of them installed already, just ask before you sign up to your hosting service. Joomla even offers a 30day free hosting service although i would keep it unused so you have a back-up service in case of troubles with your Hosting service provider.